2015 September | Think Science India

Monthly Archives: September 2015

Science Trail

Science City, Kolkata is the largest science centre in the Indian subcontinent under National Council of Science Museums (NCSM)


1Science City


Pic: Entrance


Pic: Ropeway

It is a popular weekend attraction that is fun and educative at the same time.

One can enjoy a ropeway ride into the Science centre to view the magnificent structures that make up the galleries. Also, one can take the benefit of the entertainment from amusement activities like caterpillar ride, gravity coaster, musical fountain, road train, monorail cycle, butterfly nursery and several exhibits on physical and life sciences and a maze set up in a lush green ambience.


 3Evolution Centre

Pic: Evolution Park

Evolution Park

A theme tour of 1300 square meter covering 7 large walk through dioramas with 71 robotic pre-historic animals, 26 dinosaurs and 140 early plant model set to their periods. It portrays the story of evolution of animal life, specially the extinct species.

4Space Theatre

Pic: Dome Theatre

Space Odyssey

A state of the art Space Theatre is housed in a 23-meter diameter tilted dome having unidirectional seating arrangements for 360 persons.


 5Science Theatre

3-D Theatre and Science Museum

3-D Vision Theater. A show based on stereo back projection system where visitors experience 3D effect by Polaroid spectacles.


6Mirror house 1

Pic: Mirror room

Mirror Magic. There are 35 exhibits based on reflection of light.

Time Machine. 30-seater motion simulator provides virtual experience of space flight or journey into unknown world sitting in a casual maneuvered by hydraulic motion control system.


Maritime Centre

Depicts maritime history of India, related artifacts and interactive exhibits on shipping and navigation systems.


Convention Centre Complex

This comprises of

  • Grand Theater: With stage for 100 performers and seating for over 2000 people,it is the largest auditorium in eastern India.
  • Mini Auditorium: ideal for smaller conferences and shows.
  • Seminar Building: Is an ideal venue for seminars and workshops.


Digital Image

Pic: Digital Imaging

Green House

Pic: Greenhouse

The Science city offers all the ingredients for a fun weekend in natural surroundings, so don’t forget to visit it when you are in Kolkata

Yoga for Weight loss in Diabetes

With our unhealthy lifestyles, junk food, increase in stress levels, and no time for exercise diabetes has become common.It is affecting us at a much younger age than earlier. Kids have no time to go outside and play outdoor games and elders have no time to do exercises and no way of avoiding stress.

But here is the good news; a person once diagnosed with diabetes can lead a near normal life. So all that is to be done is some lifestyle changes .The most important thing is to lose weight, but you don’t have to lose lots of kilos to start reaping the benefits. Experts say that losing just 5% to 10% of your total body weight can help you lower your blood sugar levels considerably, increasing the insulin sensitivity in the cells, and as well as lower your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Losing weight and eating healthier have effect on mood, energy levels and also make you feel good and confident about yourself.

Regular yoga practice helps in reducing sugar levels in blood as well as other symptoms of diabetes. Stress is one of the major reasons for this disease. It increases the secretion of glucagon in the body which increases blood sugar level. The consistent practice of yoga asana and meditation helps to reduce stress and also to improve the action of insulin. Since we know obesity is one of the major factors responsible for diabetes, to reduce weight Surya Namaskar and Kapal bhati pranayam are some of the most effective yoga poses known.

1.  Surya Namaskar. This asana we already discussed in detailed in our earlier issue. You can read by typing this URL in your address bar. http://thinkscience.in/?p=589

Know about Anaesthesiology & Anaesthesiologist

It is almost impossible to imagine today’s healthcare without surgery. Equally impossible is to imagine surgery without anaesthesia.

In modern era, the knowledge of patients and public is very limited about anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologist. Role of anaesthesiologist is very important during any kind of surgery. When patient goes to hospital, he will inquire about the surgeon for his surgery, but who will anaesthetize and look after the patient before, during and after the operation? Patient does not know though his life is in hands of anaesthesiologist. It is the role of anaesthesiologist to anaesthetize and take care of the patient. So, whenever patient consults surgeon for his surgery, he must enquire about his anaesthesiologist from him.

Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists, the national parent body also instructed the members all over India to arrange public awareness programs, that will make the public aware of the importance of our subject, us and our role. Press and media can also help.

People have lot of doubts, misbeliefs, misconceptions and apprehensions about the subject. So, presenting this text for public awareness about anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologist.

On October 16, 1846 Dr. William TG Morton used ether for anaesthesia for the first time. He is known as the father of anaesthesiology and every year on the same day, whole world celebrate as World Anaesthesia Day.

Today anaesthesiology is a fast growing speciality. There is lot of modernization and development to keep the patients safe during anaesthesia.

The mortality rate due to anaesthesia is 1 in 10,000 in developing countries and 1 in 2,00,000 in developed countries. In future there will be further decline in this mortality rate.


Lets try and answer some basic queries


Anaesthesia related knowledge and information is called anaesthesiology.


Controlled unconsciousness is called anaesthesia. There is triad of anaesthesia i.e. sleep, pain relief and relaxation, so that surgeon can operate with ease. This is also called balanced anaesthesia.

Many factors influence the effects of the drugs used to provide anaesthesia i.e. age, weight, pregnancy, race, alcohol, tobacco, medication etc.

The anaesthesia technique is used depending upon the part of the body to be operated. The patient is thoroughly examined for high blood pressure, diabetes, any other disease related to kidney, liver, heart, respiratory system, nervous system etc., so that anaesthesia technique is chosen accordingly and so are different types of drugs and quantity used during anaesthesia.

Side by side during operating period, different monitors are used to examine and control the activities of all parts of the body, so that patients remain safe during and after anaesthesia.

Patient should be empty stomach for 3 to 4 hours before operation,so that he may not vomit during surgery/anaesthesia.

By anaesthesia technique, any one part of the body or whole body is anaesthetized.

Drugs used for anaesthesia are usually safe but some times adverse effects and serious complications can occur. One drug can act differently in different patients. So, it is very difficult to predict about the out come of anaesthesia.



The medical person who administers anaesthesia is called anaesthesiologist. After passing MBBS one has to undergo 2 to 3 years course for securing DA (Diploma) or MS/MD (Degree) respectively. Such qualified doctor is called Anaesthesiologist. Many anaesthesiologists are now called super specialists by working for 6 months or more in specific field of anaesthesiology i.e. cardio-vascular throracic, neuro, paediatric, pain relief etc. etc.

Inspite of qualified anaesthesiologist, the anaesthetic morbidity and mortality cannot be stopped, reduced and prevented completely but in most cases it can be handled and prevented. Hence anaesthesiology is difficult and dangerous speciality.

The anaesthesiologist assesses the risk of the patient undergoing surgery/ anaesthesia and optimizes the patient’s condtion before, during and after surgery/anaesthesia.




Nerves carrying the impulses are blocked locally, is called local anaesthesia. In this method the anaesthetic drug is usually injected into the tissues to numb the specific part of the body. 


Nerves carrying the impulses are blocked at the level of spinal cord, is called regional anaesthesia. There are many types of regional anaesthesia but two methods are very popular-

Spinal Anaesthesia & Epidural Anaesthesia

In both the methods, the anaesthetic drug is injected with great exactness in the appropriate area of the back resulting in loss of sensation in the lower parts of the body.

During local and regional anaesthesia, the patient remains awake or may be given sedatives if needed. Usally the drugs used for local and regional anaesthesia are safe but can react adversally some times and serious complications can occur but if diagnosed in time, they can be prevented and controlled.



In this technique the patient remains unconscious by anaesthetic drugs and has no awareness or any sensation. Many drugs are used including anaesthetic gases and vapours.

For minor and short duration surgery, the patient is put to sleep by giving injection into vein in the arm or by allowing patient to breath anaesthetic gases and vapours through a face mask. For major and long duration surgery, the anaesthetic gases and vapours are administered into the lungs by a face mask or a rubber/plastic tube introduced into the wind pipe. Sometimes drugs which stop breathing by relaxing muscles are injected, then the anaesthesiologist breathes for patient artificially by pumping oxygen into the lungs manually or by machine.

The duration and level of anaesthesia is controlled carefully. After the surgery, the general anaesthesia is terminated by withdrawing anaesthetic agents and administering suitable antidotes. This allows the patient to wake up from anaesthetic state.

For genral anaesthesia, special instruments i.e. anaesthesia machine, monitors etc. are used.


To- day anaesthesia is much more safe because of new drugs, agents, special equipments and vigilant anaesthesiologist but anaesthetic mishaps can occur. The chances of anaesthetic complications depend upon patient’s health prior to operation and complicated surgery.


To help anaesthesiologists to provide the best and safest patient care possible, international and national standards/guidelines have been developed to enhance the safety and quality of anaesthesia. These standards/guidelines along with sophisticated monitoring and anaesthetic equipments as well as improved medications, techniques and vigilant anaesthesiologist, have contributed enormously toward making anaesthesia safer than ever before.



Anaesthesiologist’s work place is not only limited to operation theatre but plays a great role in different capacity at different places.


He looks after patients before, during and in immediate post operative period. He also takes consent for anaesthesia from patients and relatives. Anaesthesiologist can not refuse for anaesthesia but gives anaesthetic risks and inform patient, relatives and surgeon accordingly. Anaesthesiologists are involved in the care of patients in ICU particularly those who need mechanical ventilation. He also provides training to all category of people in cardio pulmonary brain resuscitation. He manages pain clinic, relieves pain casued by advanced cancer and other non surgical cases. He plays a great role in relieving pain of normal child birth. Anaesthesiologist provides a helping hand in trauma, rescue and disaster management. Anaesthesiolgist also provides his services during ECT, MRI, and CT Scan.


Patients select their surgeon for surgery, I hope in coming years, the patients will also choose their anaesthesiologist for anaesthesia.

This text is a small effort for public awareness to know about anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologists.

Durum Wheat – Uses and Importance

When we relish the upma or pasta in our plates, we seldom think about how the ingredients make their way into these sumptuous dishes.

One of the most used cereals worldwide is wheat. It is one of the most durable and dependable crops after rice and maize and is grown under diverse agro-climatic conditions.

We will take a look at a variety called Durum wheat that is the raw material that goes into our daily food items. Durum wheat results in numerous foods such as macaroni, pasta products and semolina in the nourishment of world population including India.

Durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) is an economically important crop grown worldwide including India. It is being cultivated in 10 to 11% of world area and accounts about 8% of the total wheat production.

In central India it is been cultivated in Malva regions, Sourastra and Kathiaward in Gujarat and Kota, Bundi, Jhalaward and Udaipur regions of Rajasthan, Bundalkhand region and west Maharastara from long time and its traditional food products like Bati, Bafla, Dalia, Churma, Lapsi, Upma etc are being consumed as staple food.

Due to susceptibility to the rust and limited production in 1960s the cultivation in mid India declined and farmers stopped growing durum wheat varieties. Now, due to the development of highly tolerant and high yielding varieties the area, production and productivity of durum wheat has increased day by day and central India is now called as a hub for the durum wheat.

Durum Wheat 1 kernel copyPic: Durum Wheat kernel

Advantages of durum wheat cultivation

More Production in less irrigation

Durum (Malvi) wheat needs less irrigation as compared to bread wheat,.Some varieties like Malav Ratan and Malav Karti can give 35-40 quintals/ha. in one or two irrigations depending upon the availability of water and varieties like Malav Shakti and Poshan gives around 50-60 quintals/ha. in three to four irrigations.

Durum Wheat 2 crop stages copy

Pic: Durum Wheat crop stages

Durum Wheat 3 crop stages

Nutrient security:

It is found that as compared to rice and aestivum (variety of wheat) nutrient value of durum wheat is more, because it contains protein, micronutrients like iron, copper and zinc in large amount comparatively.

Table 1: Comparison between quality characters of popular Bread wheat (Lok-1) and Durum wheat (HI 8627)

Varieties Hectolitre weight (kg) Protein (%) Total carotene (ppm) Iron (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Copper (ppm)
Malav Karti (durum) 82.3 11.0 5.7 49.6 42.1 6.0
Lok-1 (aestivum) 80.1 10.6 2.3 35.5 27.2 4.5

 From the above table it is clear that as compared to the most popular bread wheat (Lok-1) in central India durum wheat (Malav Karti) contains more values of total carotene (two and half % more), protein and micro nutrients. In addition, it contains vitamin B complex i.e., Riboflamin, Licine and Thimine in good amounts. It contains folic acid, calcium, vitamin E and antioxidant in good amounts as compared to bread wheat. Total carotene which is precursor of vitamin A, helps to keeps eyes healthy and in development of immune system

Security to rust and other disease:

Research showed that durum wheat has different levels of rust resistance as compared to common bread wheat.Many durum wheat varieties are resistant to brown rust, which is very prominent in bread wheat in India. Durum wheat can protect wheat cultivators not only in central India but also all over India where wheat is cultivated. It is also resistant to black rust (Ug 99) so it avoids the dispersion of Ug 99 race in India. Durum wheat is also resistant to seed borne disease like Karnal blunt and Kayama (Loose Smut) which gives seed born disease free wheat varieties.

Durum Wheat 3A rust copy

Pic: Field view of Brown rust on Wheat

Job orienting:

Durum wheat is mostly used in fast food like noodles, spaghetti, lasagna, vermicelli, macaroni, pasta and many other products.

Keeping in view the increasing demands of these products, many fast food production plants can be set up , providing jobs to many people.

Durum Wheat 4 products

Possibility of International business:

There is a wide competition in the export of bread wheat as compared to the durum wheat .Since durum wheat is a more profitable crop as compared to bread wheat, farmers can make good money by supplying disease free nutrient filled durum wheat. In addition, they can get good market of processed food manufacturing in India

New developed varieties of durum wheat:

There are many Durum wheat varieties developed for different irrigation conditions, India Agriculture Research Institute, Regional station is working in very effective way for the development of many Durum wheat varieties for different irrigation conditions and improving its quality level. All the developed varieties are rust resistant, high level of water use efficiency, drought and heat tolerable and contain high level of quality nutrients.

Therefore, the cultivation of Durum wheat makes great economic sense today as compared to other crops

It surely is an opportunity for farmers in India to make use of indigenous technologies and crop varieties available for increased profitability and a fulfilling farming career!

Author :

Dr Amit Gautham RA

Indian Agricultural Research Institue

Regional station Indore

TSI – Essay Contest



Start giving shape to your dreams. Participate in “TSI – Essay Contest” to bring out the scientist in you.

Terms & Conditions:

By submitting the article it is understood that the writer has read & understood the terms and conditions hereunder.

Students can choose to write an essay comprising about 400 to 600 words on either of the topics given below

  • If I were a scientist what would I invent
  • How technology has changed our lives

Send in your entries to editor@thinkscience.in

Please add the following information for future correspondence

  • Name:
  • Class:
  • School Name & Address:
  • e-Mail ID:

Mention “Essay at TSI Sep ’15” in the subject line.

This contest is strictly for the school children studying Std “9 to 12”

Entries received during 15th Sep’15 to 30th Sep’15  will be considered in the competition

Submitted articles should be of writer’s own thoughts and not copied or published earlier in any form of medium

TSI (Think Science India) reserves the right to use the entries received for promotions and commercialisation purpose (Creation of videos, audio books, social media). TSI also reserves the rights to publish these articles at any given point of time in any form of medium (Online, Blog, Print, Magazine, News Paper, etc)

Top entries get to be published in Think Science India.

Three winners will be announced from amongst all the entries received and winners will be awarded cheques for 3K, 2K and 1K

Correspondence with the winners will be made through the mail ID that has been used to send entries

Judges panel:


Yugi Photo

  • Dr. Yugandhar Reddy.

He has a PhD in Molecular biology from Indian Institute of Science Bengluru & postdoctoral experience from University of Pittsburg, Pittsburgh, USA. Currently serving as a Research Scientist at HUL.

Pradeep-cropped copy

  • Dr. Pradeep Kumar.

Dr. Kumar joined New Jersey Medical School in 2011. He working on discovering new inhibitors with novel molecular targets in pathway driven approach to drug discovery in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He is also studying mechanisms behind emergence of of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prior to joining New Jersey Medical School, he did his postdoctoral training at the the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,MD. Dr. Kumar made seminal contribution in the area of DNA repair in Mycobacteria and received his PhD from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.



  • Manish Kumar Sharma.

Lead Architect – Software AG

He holds an engineering degree in Information and Telecommunication and MBA from University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Manish Sharma works as the Lead Architect with Software AG, based out of London office he is also the practice lead for process driven SAP implementations across EMEA. He is an Enterprise Architect with focus on Transformation projects- Strategy to Execution. He has been in the industry for 15 years and delivered programs for companies such as RBS, Vodafone, Zurich Financials, Future Group and John Lewis Partnership.

editor pic

  • Dr. Sona Sharma

A Medical professional by education, she is the Editor for Think Science India magazine.



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